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A Belgian View on Lattice Rules by Cools R., Nuyens D. PDF

By Cools R., Nuyens D.

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In practice, this may not be the case due to CT errors, ratio mismatch, and line charging current. Information concerning both the phase and magnitude of the current at each terminal must be available at all terminals in order to prevent operation for external faults. Thus, a current differential scheme requires a communications medium suitable for the transmission of this data. A current differential scheme can operate for internal faults—even for zero infeed at one or more of the terminals—provided the total current is greater than the sensitivity of the relaying system.

There are numerous differences in relay characteristics. The relays are set according to the positive and zero-sequence impedance of the transmission line. On two-terminal lines without tap lines, the impedance of a transmission line is fixed, and the reach of the relay is largely insensitive to network changes. However, on multiterminal lines and transmission lines with tap lines, the apparent impedance is affected by network changes. The term “impedance relay” is often used interchangeably with the term “distance relay,” although it is only a convenient convention.

Three-phase devices may sum the currents internally to produce negative-sequence and residual operating quantities without the need for additional CT connections. The time overcurrent and instantaneous units used in directional overcurrent relay schemes are virtually identical in operation and design to those used in nondirectional overcurrent relay schemes, with the exception that the operation of one or both units will be controlled or supervised by the directional unit. Directional overcurrent relays respond only to faults in one direction.

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A Belgian View on Lattice Rules by Cools R., Nuyens D.

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