By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for functions except human convenience. This e-book comprises info on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; commercial functions of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the practising engineer, this quantity can also be worthwhile for somebody fascinated by cooling and garage of nutrition items. This variation contains new chapters. bankruptcy three, Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration structures, describes the historical past of this "natural refrigerant" and why it's the topic of renewed curiosity at the present time. The bankruptcy comprises dialogue and diagrams on CO2 refrigerant functions, process layout, apparatus, security, lubricants, commissioning, operation, and upkeep. bankruptcy 50, Terminology of Refrigeration, lists many of the universal phrases utilized in commercial refrigeration platforms, relatively structures utilizing ammonia because the refrigerant.
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Extra info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition)
As the separating distance reduces, the amount of liquid entrainment from gravity separators increases. Table 2 shows the gravity separation velocities. 75. The gas-and-liquid separator may be designed with baffles or eliminators to separate liquid from the suction gas returning from the top of the shell to the compressor. More often, enough separation space is allowed above the liquid level for this purpose. Such a design is usually of the vertical type, with a separation height above the liquid level of600 to 900 mm.
Compressors can be positive-displacement, reciprocatingpiston, rotary-vane, scroll, single and double dry and lubricantflooded screw devices, and single- or multistage centrifugals. They can be operated in series or in parallel with each other, in which case special controls may be required. Drivers for compressors can be direct hermetic, semihermetic, or open with mechanical seals on the compressor. In hermetic and semihermetic drives, motor inefficiencies are added to the refrigerant as heat.
The pipe outlet must be a minimum distance of ID95 above the maximum liquid level in the shell. H2 is measured from the outlet to the inside top of the shell. 5 times the depth of the curved portion of the head. For the alternative location of G, determine IDS from the following equation: IDS= Jw The maximum liquid height in the separator is a function of the type of system in which the separator is being used. In some systems this can be estimated, but in others, previous experience is the only guide for selecting the proper liquid height.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (SI Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers